Укр

  1. Головна
  2. Архів
  3. Achievements of fundamental & applied sciences
  4. Наукова стаття № 5

Перегляди  315 переглядів

Lykholat Olena Anatoliyvna, Lykholat Tetayna Yuriyivna, Rakhmanov Ragif Vagifovych, Vyshnikina Olena Viktorivna, Liashenko Olena Volodymyrivna

  

DIET: ESTIMATION OF POTENTIAL ALIMENTARY EXPOSURE TO ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

  
Анотація:
in the article is analyzed the risks for consumer health associated with contamination of food with endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The main classes of such substances, ways of exposure of basic foods, as fruits and vegetables, meat and fish products are identified. Emphasis is placed on the possible contamination of products with chemical substances presented in the materials used for its packaging and storage. A special problem is the possibility of xenoestrogen contamination of baby food   

Ключові слова:
diet, consumers, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, contamination, affect health   

УДК 338.439:613.2

Lykholat Olena Anatoliyvna

Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor

University of customs and finance

(Dnipro, Ukraine)

 

Lykholat Tetayna Yuriyivna

Candidate of Biological Sciences,

Associate Professor

Oles Honchar Dnipro National University

(Dnipro, Ukraine)

 

Rakhmanov Ragif Vagifovych

Candidate of Medical Sciences

Ukrainian rehabilitation center for psychotherapy

 for children and adults

(Dnipro, Ukraine)

 

Vyshnikina Olena Viktorivna

Candidate of Chemical Sciences,

Associate Professor University of customs and finance

(Dnipro, Ukraine)

 

Liashenko Olena Volodymyrivna

postgraduate

Oles Honchar Dnipro National University

(Dnipro, Ukraine)

 

DIET: ESTIMATION OF POTENTIAL ALIMENTARY EXPOSURE

TO ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

 

Abstract: in the article is analyzed the risks for consumer health associated with contamination of food with endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The main classes of such substances, ways of exposure of basic foods, as fruits and vegetables, meat and fish products are identified. Emphasis is placed on the possible contamination of products with chemical substances presented in the materials used for its packaging and storage. A special problem is the possibility of xenoestrogen contamination of baby food.

 

Keywords: diet, consumers, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, contamination, affect health.

 

Food is indispensable for human life and determines the health and wellbeing of the consumer. As food is the source of energy for humans, diet and dietary patterns both play a crucial role in chronic diseases of the current century. It also emerges as one of the most important sources of exposure to deleterious chemicals both natural and synthetic. The food exposed chemicals cause a number of detrimental health effects in humans, with endocrine disruption being of serious concern amongst these effects. Such chemicals disrupting the health of endocrine system are known as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) [1].

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) are a global problem for environmental and human health. They are defined as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are “exogenous compounds that interfere with the processing and action of endogenous hormones involved in the maintenance of homeostasis and regulation of development It is estimated that there are about 1000 chemicals with endocrine-acting properties. EDCs comprise pesticides, fungicides, industrial emissions [2, 3, 4, 5], plasticizers, nonylphenols, metals, pharmaceutical agents and phytoestrogens [6, 7].

Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with lower life-threatening diseases, such as cardiovascular ailments, metabolic syndromes, neoplastic conditions and neurodegenerative disorders. However, these health benefits of vegetables take a drastic U-turn when one consumes the same vegetables containing a trace quantity of EDCs: more than 24 novel EDCs such as organophosphorus pesticides, phenyl phenol, alkylphenols, parabens, triclosan, and bisphenol A were assessed in commonly grown fruits and vegetables. Heavy metals such as cadmium, hexavalent chromium, tin, arsenic, mercury and lead are common pollutants and potent EDCs commonly found in food, especially in vegetables. Fruits and vegetables can be exposed to synthetic xenoestrogens during the irrigations process, in which plants are irrigated with wastewater effluents and freshwater and treated with several types of biosolids.

Thus, EDCs in vegetables and fruits can mask the benefits of antioxidants and instead create endocrine perturbations [8]. Meat is an excellent dietary source of proteins, and it also contains some micronutrients such as vitamin B12, iron and zinc. Toxic agents such as Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), conventionally used as flame retardants, heavy metals and EDCs in supranormal concentration have been found in meat products warranting possible side effects on long term consumption [8, 9]. The inclusion of fish in the diet has several advantages, and one such advantage is regular consumption of fish prevents cardiovascular ailments. Since humans consume fish, human exposure to EDCs through aquatic food in general, especially fishes, needs serious regulation. Aquatic species, such as fish, amphibians, aquatic reptiles and mammals, are most affected by EDCs exposures and their population is declining in contaminated areas. This has a profound impact on humans, since we are at the top of the food chain and our eating habits may expose us to risky levels of EDCs [10].

Phytoestrogens are plant-produced compounds found in a wide variety of herbs and foods, most notably, soy-containing foods. Phytoestrogens, made naturally, often share structural features with endogenous E2, allowing phytoestrogens to cause estrogenic and/or anti-estrogenic effects. However, there is also concern that phytoestrogens may act as endocrine disruptors that adversely affect health [11]. Food can be contaminated by naturally-occurring mycoestrogens produced by fungi. One of the most widely diffused mycotoxin is zearalenone, which is frequently found as contaminant in corn, oats, wheat, and rice [12].

Xenoestrogenic compounds may also be found among food preservatives. For example, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), an antioxidant is used as a food additive (E320) [12]. Synthetic xenoestrogens are also present in food packages and can pass from package to food. EDCs have been widely found in materials used by infants and children, such as baby bottles, as well as in food and breast milk. BPA is widely present in thermal paper receipts. In addition to BPA, also terephthalic acid (TPA), a major chemical precursor of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers that are used for food storage and beverages.

Various materials such as paper used in tetra packs, plastic, ceramics, and metal cans are called Food contact materials (FCMs). While packaging increases the shelf life of food and prevents microbial contamination, the same can be hazardous to endocrine health as packaging materials transfer particles into the food. Bisphenol A, a potential endocrine disruptor affecting human reproduction, has been documented in high concentrations from Food contact materials (FCMs), especially from polycarbonate plastic containers used for hotel parcel service. According to the European Food Safety Authority opinion, diet is considered to be the main source of exposure, especially canned food; moreover, among noncanned food, meat and fish products have the highest levels of bisphenols (BPA) contamination. The canned seafood is more contaminated than the non-canned one. Monitoring of food contamination from bisphenols is a necessary process for the consumers' risk assessment [8, 10, 12].

Thus, every person is exposed to some combination of chemicals throughout his or her life; the compounds ones are exposed to, and their consequences on the bodies, are highly individualized due to differences in genetics, metabolism, and lifestyle. The growing concerns of the exogenous estrogenic influence on health have prompted considerable public attention and scientific interest. The food as a source of endocrine disruptors to humans cannot be neglected. It is highly imperative for the consumer to recognize food as a source of EDCs and make informed choices in the consumption of food items.

 

REFERENCES:

 

  1. Hina R, Saad S A, Saeed A. (2020). Diet: A Source of Endocrine Disruptors. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 20(5):633-645.
  2. Prisedsky Y., Kabar A., Lykholat Y., Martynova N., Shupranova L. (2017) Activity and isoenzyme composition of peroxidase in Japanese quince vegetative organs under steppe zone conditions. Biologija. 63(2), 185-192.
  3. Приседський Ю. Г., Лихолат Ю. В. Адаптація рослин до антропогенних чинників: монографія. ДонНУ імені Василя Стуса. Вінниця: ТОВ "Нілан-ЛТД", 2017. 98 с.
  4. Лихолат Ю.В., Мицик Л.П. Рівень акумуляції важких металів у рослинах Poa angustifolia L. у штучних біогеоценозах. Питання степового лісознавства та лісової рекультивації земель. Дніпропетровськ: ДНУ, 2000. Вип. 4. С. 25–28.
  5. Savosko V., Lykholat Y., Domshyna K., Lykholat, T. (2018). Ecological and geological determination of trees and shrubs‟ dispersal on the devastated lands at Kryvorizhya. Journal of Geology, Geography and Geoecology. 27 (1): 116-130.
  6. Bayram Y, Hakan T, Suleyman S, Fahrettin K. (2020). Endocrine disrupting chemicals: exposure, effects on human health, mechanism of action, models for testing and strategies for prevention. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 21(1):127-147.
  7. Celino-Brady FT, Lerner DT., Seale AP. (2020). Experimental Approaches for Characterizing the Endocrine-Disrupting Effects of Environmental Chemicals in Fish. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 11: 619361.
  8. La Merrill MA., Vandenberg LN., Smith MT. et al. (2020). Consensus on the key characteristics of endocrine-disrupting chemicals as a basis for hazard identification Nat Rev Endocrinol. 16(1): 45–57.
  9. Lykholat T.Y., Lykholat O.A, Kravchuk K.V. (2021). Influence of alimentary xenoestrogens on cholinergic regulation in different age animals. International scientific and practical conferencе «Challenges, treats and development in biology, agriculture, ecolgy, geography, geology and chemistry»: conference proceedings. July 2-3, Lublin: «Baltija Publishing». P. 121-124.
  10. Lykholat T.Y., Alexeyeva A.A., Holubiev M.I., Lykholat O.A., Marenkov O.M. (2021). Influence of substances destroying the endocrine system on the state of fauna representatives. Effects of pollution and climate change on the ecosystem components. Edited by Yu. V. Lykholat. Praha: Oktan Print, 2021. P. 136-159.
  11. Wang X, Ha D, Yoshitake R et al. (2021). Exploring the Biological Activity and Mechanism of Xenoestrogens and Phytoestrogens in Cancers: Emerging Methods and Concepts. Int J Mol Sci. Aug; 22(16): 8798.
  12. Paterni I., Granchi C., Minutolo F. (2017). Risks and benefits related to alimentary exposure to xenoestrogens. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. Nov 2; 57(16): 3384–3404.
  
Achievements of fundamental & applied sciences. Нашвілл, США.   

Посилання для цитування:

Lykholat Olena Anatoliyvna, Lykholat Tetayna Yuriyivna, Rakhmanov Ragif Vagifovych, Vyshnikina Olena Viktorivna, Liashenko Olena Volodymyrivna. DIET: ESTIMATION OF POTENTIAL ALIMENTARY EXPOSURE TO ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS // ''Achievements of fundamental & applied sciences'' (міжнародна наукова конференція). ISBN 978-0-4607-31-1. Нашвілл, США. С. 52 - 57. 2022 р. // Електронний ресурс: https://academconf.com/article/260 (дата звернення: 22.06.2024 р.)


Повна версія статті PDF

© 2022